| Tech doctoral student Katrina Koski prepares to scuba dive into a karst formation. Their research will help describe how groundwater is transported through subterranean systems. Photo by Tanja Pietrass|
| New Mexico Tech professor John Wilson suits up for a dive in Eagles Nest Cave in the Chassahowitzka Wildlife Management Area in Florida. Photo by Katrina Koski|
| This simulation depicts a cross-section of flow in a karst conduit and induced hyporheic flow in the surrounding rock matrix that is located both above and below the conduit. The ceiling above the conduit has two large cupolas while the floor is lined with regularly-spaced features called scallops. The upper left (a) depicts relative flow speed (red= fast, blue = slow) with different color scales in conduit and matrix. The upper right depicts the distribution of fluid pressure (color, ed= high, blue = low), fluid velocity (arrows), and flow paths in the matrix. The ceiling morphology drives the hyporheic flow deeper into the matrix ceiling above the conduit than the smaller scallops drive flow into the matrix below the floor. With a porous and morphologically complex ceiling and floor, there is an interaction between the floor and ceiling morphology that creates nested hyporheic flow paths in the matrix on the other side of the conduit. The relative age of hyporheic flow is shown in the lower left (color: red= old, blue = new) while in the lower right is the highly variable spatial pattern of relative residence time for the returning hyporheic floor to the conduit from the ceiling (top) and floor (bottom). The illustrated domain is 2m wide and 2.5m tall.|
This article was written for the Water Resource Reseach Institute's newsletter, The Divining Rod, and will appear in the upcoming issue.